Landscape produced by genetic programming where Constriction hinders Particle Swarm Optimisation

Swarm of ten Particles without Constriction

No constriction 0.00124*x*x*y

10 particles without constriction factor. In this run 7 generations were needed to find an optima. Note the Swarm remains energetic and easily moves away from initial position to one of the optimal areas.

Swarm of ten Particles with Constriction factor of 0.7

No constriction 0.00124*x*x*y
A Swarm of 10 particles operating on the same landscape as above from the same initial conditions, except now we use a constriction factor. The swarm loses energy so fast that, despite the gradient, it never reaches either optimal area. Instead it remains near 5.83,6.04 forever.

Example where constriction helps.

Presented at Swarm Intelligence Symposium 2005.

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W.B.Langdon 4 June 2005

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